These are an intervening step before testing, to determine whether the expense of testing is warranted. It may be helpful as you are developing your outline to also write down a tentative list of references. Your most important goal in this section is to be as explicit as possible by providing enough detail and references. Additionally, the case study may be the best, or only, way to study certain phenomena because of the relatively small number of identified cases and a resulting scarcity of data, which restricts the use of quantitative methods. This focused yet not narrowly defined approach allows the investigator to be open to unexpected observations and new conclusions.
John Gerring 2004 emphasizes how, by failing to accommodate the bounded aspect of case work, most commonly used definitions for case study are inadequate. This paper presents guidelines on how to initiate the writing process and draft each section of a research manuscript. If you change your mind or revise the map, then all you have to do is change the text to generate a fresh version. Once again, go with what best and most effectively presents your argument. You can even revise by reading sentences backward, sentence by sentence and word by word.
Behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 were programmed by using E-Prime. Bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation. Thus, the pattern is to discuss the study and some of its main points, meaning only 1 or 2 sources will be used in the paragraph. Just as with any type of hard work, you will not succeed unless you practice regularly. In contrast to the macrostructure revision, which is a linear process and is done usually through a detailed outline and by sections, microstructure revision is a non-linear process.
The Active Voice In Scientific Articles: Frequency And Discourse Functions. More recently, the case study has seen a revival of interest by social scientists as part of a multimethod, holistic approach that includes formal, qualitative, and quantitative methods. How does the writing process work? What procedure did you follow? Do not slow down to choose a better word or better phrase; do not halt to improve your sentence structure. This will not be an outline that you are used to, with Roman numerals for each section and neat parallel listing of topic sentences and supporting points. His concentrated case study of states in the Middle East during a single period allows him to develop the depth of knowledge necessary for such a study, in which data alone would be inadequate.
He does, however, credit the case study with multiple indirect benefits, making it a valuable component in establishing political science theory. Think about all the terms that are most difficult to understand and need explanation — these will have to be explained thoroughly in the introduction, so dont forget to define your terms and make a note of all your terms in the paper outline. Is it time for application of some kind? It is late at night. These last three case typologies constitute the core of comparative case study, with their usefulness coming from their deliberate selection as a test to existing theory. In this instance, the process being studied has already been selected for over time, leaving as evidence only its most recent iteration and losing any obvious trace of what may have been critically important in the intervening stages.
These will constitute the first level of your outline, which will eventually expand as you elaborate. Just as the best and most precious diamond is no more than an unattractive stone recognized only by trained professionals, your ideas and your results may go unnoticed if they are not polished and brushed. As a result, you procrastinate. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Staring at an empty screen is frustrating, but your screen is not really empty: You have a template of your article, and all you need to do is fill in the blanks. Comparative politics and the comparative method. Use as a starting point for your outline.
Choose either a topic outline or a sentence outline based on which one you believe will work best for you. However, the outline should be viewed as a guide, not a straitjacket. This switching misleads and distracts the reader. Indicate a gap in the previous research, or extend previous knowledge in some way. One Yale University graduate student spent a semester writing from 8 a.
The reader can always go back to the text if they need to. Writing in the sciences: Exploring conventions of scientific discourse. Additionally, these in-depth analyses not only are a source of data for larger comparative studies but may also identify new variables of interest or suggest potentially new theoretical explanations. Addressing this fundamental question over the potentially ambiguous nature of a case study finding, which alone can neither directly inform nor disprove a generalizable finding, Arend Lijphart 1971 states that because of its singular nature, the case study in and of itself does not directly satisfy the standards of scientific research. George and Smoke use process tracing to establish the causal explanation, which would not be possible without the depth of knowledge acquired in these case histories. Finally, the case study is increasingly being appreciated as a necessary component of comprehensive political science research today: Together with traditional quantitative methods that provide reliable statistical probabilities for a tightly focused view, and formal theory methods that produce more soft-focused or abstract explanations, case study work provides a necessary contribution by filling in the gaps, compensating for the inevitable shortcomings when formal and quantitative methods are applied to real-life questions and problems. You will have a publication, and this is the most important achievement.